Libro secondo delle Indie occidentali. Lemerre, p. Lire en ligne Internet Archive. In Jean Thenaud Lire en ligne, Internet Archive. Les bulles pontificales sont aussi dites "papales".
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Louis XI, roi de France, , intervient dans la guerre de succession de Castille. Michel Loetscher. Question sociale. C'est une chose res. Mais enlevez persona, homo tient bon. Pour une sociologie du droit sans rigueur , . Abolition des esclavages. Nezahualcoyotl 28 avril 4 juin Treize colonies. Anheim, R. Bertrand, A. Lilti et S. So situated, I could hardly fail of following the maternal advice, to try what farming could do.
I rented a small farm of my mother's, and farmed from to Having taken a second farm that was in the hands of a tenant, I gained some Edition: current; Page: [ xxxiii ] knowledge, but not much; and the painful effect was to convince me that, to understand the business in any perfection, it was necessary to continue my exertions for many years. And the circumstance, perhaps, of all others in my life which I most deeply regretted, and considered as a sin of the blackest dye, was my publishing the result of my experiences during these four years, which, speaking as a farmer, was nothing but ignorance, folly, presumption, and rascality.
The only use which resulted from these years was to enable me to view the farms of other men with an eye of more discrimination than I could possibly have done without that practice.
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It was also the occasion of my going on the Southern Tour in , the Northern Tour in , and the Eastern in , extending through much the greater part of the kingdom; and the execution of these tours was considered by all who read them and they were very generally read to be of most singular utility to the general agriculture of the kingdom. It will not escape observation that these jottings of old age, interesting at they are, err on the side of redundancy and epexegesis.
We wholly miss the vivacity, terseness, and vigour of the French Travels. The marriage brought him an enviable connection—troops of friends, a passport into brilliant circles, but no fireside happiness. The lady was evidently of a captious disposition, shrewish temper, and narrow sympathies.
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A few years later Arthur Young became famous. Courted by the great, a conspicuous figure in society, handsome, witty, versatile, he certainly found a London salon more to his taste than a dull farmhouse—a day's outing with the Burneys more congenial than heavy land-farming in wet weather. Young entered the room.
Oh, how glad we were to see him! He was in extremely good spirits.
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Talking of happiness, sensibility, and a total want of feeling, my mamma said, turning to me, 'Here's a girl will never be happy, never whilst she lives, for she possesses, perhaps, as feeling a heart as ever girl had. Young, 'my friend Fanny possesses a very feeling heart? In the meantime he was making one disastrous attempt at practical farming after another, like a desperate gamester doubling the stakes with every loss.
For a year or two after his marriage he remained at Bradfield, farming a copyhold of twenty acres, his sole fortune, and eighty more, the property of his mother. His successor, a practical farmer, made a good deal of money out of the concern, probably as much as Arthur Young had lost by it, so hampering to worldly success is the possession of original ideas! One of his farms he describes as "a devouring wolf," an epithet that need not surprise us when we consider that he made 3, experiments on his Suffolk holding alone.
The superstitious might see in the pertinacity with which Mrs. Young encouraged her son's ventures some preternatural foreshadowing of his career.
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Again and again she advertised for a farm for him, and nothing better offering itself, he hired some land in Hertfordshire, which ere long he anathematized as a "hungry vitriolic gravel, a Nabob's fortune would sink in the attempt to raise good, arable crops to any extent in such a country. One of the most curious incidents in a career that detractors might well call Quixotic, is the origin of the famous English Tours.
Will it be believed that just as Cervantes' half-mad hero set out in search of chivalrous adventure, and Dr.
Syntax in search of the picturesque, this thrice-ruined farmer determined Edition: current; Page: [ xxxv ] to explore the entire country till he could find land that would pay? Whenever he put pen to paper he was successful. Whenever he turned to experimental farming he almost ruined himself.
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These narratives of home travel from an agricultural point of view were a novelty, and also supplied an actual want. Not only did he give a succinct picture of farming as carried on at that time in various parts of England, but much information valuable to the general reader. The three works were largely sold, yet the author grew poorer and poorer.
In Fanny Burney gives a vivacious, jaunty picture of her uncle, as she used to call him. She describes him as most absurdly dressed for a common visit, being in light blue, embroidered with silver, having a bag and sword, and walking in the rain.
A year later we have a very different account. Young have been in town for a few days," scribbled the girl-diarist. Young, whose study and dependence is agriculture, has half undone himself by experiments. His writings upon this subject have been amazingly well received by the public, and in his tours through England he has been caressed and assisted almost universally. Indeed, his conversation and appearance must ever secure him welcome and admiration.
But, of late, some of his facts have been disputed, and though I believe it to be only by envious and malignant people, yet reports of that kind are fatal to an author, whose sole credit must subsist on his veracity. In short, by slow but sure degrees, his fame has been sported with and his fortune destroyed His children, happily, have their mother's jointure settled upon them.
He has some thoughts of going abroad, but his wife is averse to it. Young is not well, and appears almost overcome with the horrors of his situation; in fact, he is almost destitute. This is a dreadful trial for him, yet I am persuaded he will still find some means of extricating himself from his distresses, at least if genius, spirit, and enterprise can avail. His own diary for this year contains the following entry: Edition: current; Page: [ xxxvi ] "The same unremitting industry, the same anxiety, the same vain hopes, the same perpetual disappointment, no happiness, nor anything like it.
But three months after that last sorrowful mention of her favourite, Fanny Burney once more strikes a cheerful note. Young had dined with her sister and herself, she wrote. Fortune, she hoped, smiled on him again, for he again smiled on the world.
The originator of three thousand unsuccessful experiments was hardly the man to lose faith in himself. If occasional fits of dejection overtook him, he was ready an hour after to enter upon a history of agriculture throughout all ages and in all countries, make gigantic schemes in the interest of English husbandry, or to hire four thousand acres of Yorkshire moorland with the intention of turning the wilderness into a garden.
His powers of work, of hoping against hope, of throwing heart and soul into new interests and undertakings, were phenomenal. Of the year he writes: "Labour and sorrow, folly and infatuation: here began a new career of industry, new hopes, and never-failing disappointment. We happened to be alone in the parlour, and either from confidence in my prudence, or from an entire and unaccountable carelessness of consequences, he told me that he was the most miserable fellow breathing, and almost directly said that his connexions made him so, and most vehemently added that if he was to begin the world again, no earthly thing should prevail with him to marry!
That now he was never easy but when he was in a plow-cart, but that happy he could never be. I am very sorry for him, but cannot wonder. In June, , after a passage of twenty-four hours, he landed in Ireland. His stay did not extend over three years, and during a part of the time he was occupied in managing Lord Kingsbury's estate in County Cork. The result, nevertheless, was a survey of the country, and an inquiry into the condition of the people, which for accuracy, fulness of detail, and acuteness of observation, render it invaluable to this day.
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An accession of fame does not always mean an increase of fortune, and the future was as hard a problem to the popular author, now in the prime of life and the fulness of powers, as to the ambitious stripling of twenty. On his return from Ireland he wrote, "I arrived at Bradfield on the first of January, and had then full time to reflect upon what should be the pursuit of my life, and upon what plan I could devise for that fresh establishment of myself which should at the same time prevent any relapse into those odious dependencies and uncertainties which from to had been the perpetual torment of my life.
Whilst I was hesitating what plan to follow, an emigration to America crossed my mind, and much occupied my thoughts. Henceforth his home was Bradfield, of which a few years later he became owner. Four children had been born to him, two daughters and a son, and after an interval of thirteen years, his youngest and best-beloved child, the little girl familiar to readers of the French Travels.
Whilst he appears to have been an affectionate and conscientious father, all the passionate depth and tenderness of his nature were lavished on this latest born, his "darling child," his "lovely Bobbin. This exquisite child—for the adoring praise of her father is amply substantiated by others—was the supreme joy and consolation Edition: current; Page: [ xxxviii ] of a life often steeped in uncommon bitterness, and when she died, there went forth a wail from an utterly desolated heart, that moves us to tears after the long lapse of years.
This awful shadow is as yet far off. The existence of his darling corresponded to the most brilliant years of Arthur Young's career. Glancing at the entries made between and , that is to say, between the Irish and French journeys, we find many a stirring episode, and much evidence of indefatigable, even colossal labours, undertaken in a hopeful spirit. Some of these memoranda are passing humorous: he tells us, for instance, how whilst at Petworth, on a visit to Lord Egremont, he went into a bath at four o'clock a. It had none, he complacently adds, except that of increasing strength and activity.
From another note we learn that he had been busy on stanzas to a lady. The year opens with the project of the "Annals of Agriculture," which he calls, as well he might do, one of the greatest speculations of his life. Literary contributions were invited from all sides, and the work was launched under royal patronage. Arthur Young not only acted as editor, but wrote voluminously for its pages. The "Annals" consist of forty-five quarto volumes, and although much of the information therein contained has been superseded, they form, in the words of a competent authority, "a noble addition to any library.
It is here, as a statesman, that Arthur Young stands pre-eminent. On questions of home or international trade, on commerce, or prices, on monopolies, on religious bigotry, on class arrogance and insolence, on endowed charities, on the poor laws, on the law of settlement, on taxation direct and indirect, on bounties and drawbacks, he knew as much as Cobden, and has written as wisely.
That which his great contemporary Adam Smith reasoned out, Arthur Young seems to have reached with electric despatch by instinct. The "Annals" made a noise in the world; even Dr.