But at a deeper level, the central theme of this cuadro de costumbres yields up "an 58 essentially polemic and ideological confrontation" in which "only a single voice For when reconstructed as a Bahktinian dialogue, the rallying cry of Larra, Mesonero Romanes and their liberal contemporaries becomes comprehensible as the political agenda of the intelligensia of a class ascendant. The link between the emergent independent writer and the aspirations of the middle class in which this individual is nurtured is made clear by Miguel Artola in his study La burguesia revolucionaria.
Artola underscores how the author's status is transformed into a source of conflict within the emerging state between traditional and progressive elements of the triumphant Spanish middle class: El triunfo del liberalismo significara entre otras realizaciones el reconocimiento de la libertad de expresion, llegandose muy pronto al establecimiento de una dif erenciacion entre la exposicion doctrinal que conocera una gran tolerancia y cualquier intento de realizacion practica, que sera perseguido siempre que constituya una amenaza para el regimen social y politico In scrutinizing Mesonero 's invective on artistic integrity, one finds a surprising silence with regard to commercial self -compromise.
Rather the debate is framed in terms of the classic early-nineteenth-century bourgeois ideologeme of 59 privilege versus merit. His conceptualization of writers who would undermine the "noble" cause of literature in exchange for "courtly honors" invokes the Stendhalian warning to an energetic bourgeoisie to avoid the seductive sterility of arrivisme. As the principal arm of middle class hegemony, the writer must not allow himself to be lured into the enemy camp.
The question of creation for prof it--later to become a central issue for consecration- -can and must be ignored.
Gender and Nation in the Spanish Modernist Novel
Just as Alas ' s numerous whimsical calls for subscribers indicate, autonomy and heteronomy are to be defined in political, not economic terms. The author's status, his "profit of disinterestedness," is rewarded based on his decidedly Romantic stance as an outsider, a prophet whose horn is credited with having toppled the walls of the Jericho of the Old Regime, and whose vigilance serves to guarantee the survival of the new state. In this light, the ideological bent of Juan Ruiz becomes evident.
Like his models, Alas ' s struggle for literary integrity cloaks the dialogue of class struggle. His attacks on mediocrity among his "fellow" writers, on political opportunism, may thus be rewritten in these terms. His self-righteous indignation toward on the "escritorzuelo" 60 40 whose only concern is social status-- "una persona celebre de cuyo nombre no quiero acordarrae. Indeed, the imaginary conversation between Alas and his would-be subscriber addresses the problem of weighing the abilities of "Juan Ruiz" against his motives.
The claim that "hasta los cajistas hechan su cuarto a espadas" because "nada hay tan facil como ser periodista" punctuates the desired reality projected by the text: it is not the market with its unpredictable and unforgiving shifts, but individual talent and truth that make the writer worthy of his public. This liberal bourgeois ideologeme of advancement through talent can be found throughout the text. Here is found one of the most common variations of the ideologeme, the masking of the liberal writer's subversive activity behind the dual banners of God and country: 61 Ante todo soy espanol, y gozo con las glorias de mi patria sean estas que sean Si en Espana se publica un buen libro, doy un salto de gusto.
El senor Sarmiento ha concebido, y puesto en practica, la magnifica idea de dar a luz un devocionario compuesto por los me j ores poetas. Todos mis lectores, supongo, corapraran este precioso librito y por lo mismo no quiero copiar nada. Me parece que ninguno de los autores es neo, pero todos demuestran ser catolicos. The key to this passage is, of course, the creation of a series of ideological equivalences. The "glory" of Spain is augmented by the writing of a great devotional work.
The poets realizing such a task of artistic and moral merit are all members of the liberal intelligentsia, the voice opposing the dominant pole of the bourgeoisie, the reactionary neocatolicos.
He later published a widely-read series of anti-Carlist letrillas. Carlos Frontaura was founder and editor-in-chief of the anti-government journal El Cascabel. In this way the text creates an almost geometric proof of its ideologeme : the celebration of artistic merit celebrates national piety, hence celebrating the greatness of of the nation itself. The position marked out by Juan Ruiz in its self- generated literary field may thus been grasped as a process of a symbolic resolution- -self -creation and, more importantly, self -consecration- -by means of, and by association with the liberal bourgeois ideologeme of advancement through merit- -an ideologeme closely tied to that most potent of nineteenth century ideologemes, nationalism.
In this attack on the explosion of mediocre writers in Spain the same formal and ideological devices are repeated. First, one encounters an amusingly conscious instance of self- creation : dCuantos periodicos festivos salieron este ano en Madrid? Sabelo Dios Y estos mismos invasores lo primero de que hablan es de la tal invasion, pero sin contarse en ella; para ellos, todos son intrusos.
A nuestros primeros poetas no les consideran como tales. Y para remate de fiesta se las echan de puristas, sin conocer ipobrecitos! Y con esto, los verdaderos autores se desaniman y hacen bien, digo no, hacen mal, pero yo haria lo mismo. Juan Ruyz esta dispuesto a dejar la pluma en el momento que personas competentes le prueben no sera dificil que es uno de tantos intrusos. Yo, claro, no me creo buen ni mediano escritor, pero aparte toda modestia, mas que toda esa leyade me parece que valgo. And again the potential crisis, here one of increased competition, is rewritten in such a way as to place Alas ' s literary persona in an advantageous light.
His sympathy for the "true writers," and the subsequent offer to renounce his literary vocation are followed by a reaffirmation of his own merit.
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Without entering into the fray, "Juan Ruiz" is again consecrated by association. Indeed, as if to have realized the nature of his textual manipulation, Alas humorously recognizes this "lovely habit," acknowledging to his fictitious readership that he has been caught in the proverbial act: "eh. Assuming the form of its 64 costumbrista models, "Literatura" begins as a critique of Spain's national shortcomings and ends with an assault on the forces of reaction.
Synonyms and antonyms of krausista in the Spanish dictionary of synonyms
As before, the explicit reproach is against those talentless intruders whose incompetence is a blight on the sacred national institution of literature: Todos somos poetas. Pero no nos da por cantar al Sol ni a la Luna y demas comparsa. Todos somos satiricos. Viva la guasa The invocation of the national tradition, achieved through the inclusion of the iconic Quevedo and the sacrosanct Larra, serves as the basis for the textual operation.
Aesthetic sterility and its substandard imitations, a condition underscored by the slang galicism "guasa," reflect a broader cultural decline- -a situation only remedied by the rewarding artistically and economically of merit-- "our premier poets"--and rejection of the "invaders. As one considers the litany of writers named above, one notes the projection of an equivalence between consecration and liberalism.
Indeed, even the canonical Quevedo with his well-known "poderoso caballero es Don Dinero" invokes a vague notion of social and political reform. By contrast, the article concludes with the "guasa" that has come to plague this once proud tradition : Si, senor, hoy todo el mundo es guason. Concretemonos mas. Vuelta a concretarnos. Es capaz de hacerle sudar a uno aceite de bellotas. Francamente hoy me he despachado a mi gusto, y no pienso que sea la ultima vez. Conque, ya hemos hablado de Literatura, pero ique Literatura!
Krausistas y Liberales
In fast order, the text moves from a broad criticism of literary mediocrity to its specific target: the political enemies of the liberal agenda. Held up against the liberal writers of true "virtue" - -those who serve as the models for Juan Ruiz - -the "guasones" are portrayed as being guilty of the dual sin of pandering their inferior art to the " Although Alas makes the claim that these "invaders" have compromised the work of talented writers-- "Y iquien lo paga todo?
The reverence and admiration to be felt for the writer of authentic genius leaves little doubt as to the effectiveness of this most essential of nineteenth-century bourgeois myths. With no contrary voice to be heard, the young Alas may crown the advocates of liberalism with the laurels of "merit" and drape them in the banner of nationalism.
Hispania. Volume 73, Number 2, May 1990
And, of course in doing so, he confers, by association, the same consecration, the same "authority," upon himself. The process of authorial self -creation is undeniably linked to the mythology of liberal Romanticism- -specif ically to the bourgeois tenet of advancement through merit as the key to national prosperity. However, in attempting to come to terms with the discursive operations informing the prise de position underlying Juan Ruiz , it is Jameson's third horizon, the "cultural revolution," that is, perhaps, the most useful.
For it is at this "deepest" level that one may begin to see the true complexity of the position-taking as a superstructure in terms of its material base. Jameson's recognition of an "ultimate" level of textual analysis "in which the dynamics of sign systems of several distinct modes of production can be registered and apprehended" has a particular validity in the study of Juan Ruiz. Although the text can be seen, with regard to both form and content, as both a product and a producer of early nineteenth-century liberal ideology, it is not exclusively informed by the century's evolving socio- economic base.
Indeed, as is often the case with Romantic texts, not yet fully the discursive products of industrial capitalism, Juan Ruiz still bears the traces of a very 68 different kind of cultural formation. For as much as Alas ' s first effort flirts with the position of the revolutionary bourgeoisie ultimately more aptly termed "progressive" , there lies beneath these susurfaces a yearning for a historic moment in which the dilemma of autonomy versus heteronomy, between author and writer, was reconciled in that single construct, the remnant of feudal society in the Early Modern period that Marx termed the "authorised writer" : The learned men by profession, guild or privilege, the doctors and others, the colourless university writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with their stiff pigtails and their distinguished pedantry and their petty hair-splitting dissertations, imposed themselves between the people and the mind, between life and science, between freedom and mankind Marx and Engels It is significant to note that in this citation from "Debates on Freedom of the Press" Marx is referring not to those reactionary ideologues so frequently the object of disdain in Juan Ruiz , but instead to the ancestors of Barthes's author-writers; hence, of Alas himself.
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Indeed, one should distinguish between the subversive discourse identified within the Jameson's second horizon and the sedimented ideology being discussed here. This truly "absent" history, obstructed from view by the text's bourgeois content, is that of the author as a privileged entity within a pre-industrial seigneurial system. This deepest level of meaning, where Alas ' s disdain for a political ruling class gives way to an manifest aspiration toward an equivalent intellectual and artistic aristocracy, is essential for understanding both Juan Ruiz and the texts that follow it. For it is here that one encounters the traces of that antidiluvian age when, as Barthes says, "the uncontested owners of language, and they alone, were authors" It is no longer the mythology of liberalism, but the reality of discursive control- -at once authorship and authority- -that becomes the object of analysis.
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Hence, as the text reveals its inner contradiction, it is no longer consecration, but domination that becomes its central dynamic. In the young Alas ' s fantasy, the status of the writer and of the writer's liberating ideology ultimately give way to the restoration of the author , that patriarchal figure who, in his literary absolutism, holds unquestionable authority over that " institution Whereas the frequent homage paid to Larra would seem to coincide with the textual operations identified at the other two levels, Alas's treatment of the author of El Buscon makes plain the underlying presence of the vestiges of the buried history described above.
From the outset, the already-described process of self -consecration takes on a decidedly different content. Completely removed from the political signifiers attached to "Figaro," the imposition of "author-ity" in its most tangible form becomes evident. As the text returns Quevedo, the "padre," to his deserved stature, it reasserts- -both figuratively and literally- -the patriarchal dominion of the author over the literary discourse.
Alas's argument that "Quevedo fue ly aun es! The formal in both senses exhumation of the "cadaber" sic --"queremos llevar nuestro pobre incienso a su altar" --is indeed consistent with the symbolic act of self- consecration through association "por juzgarnos indignos del sic "  , as well as with the dialogic assertion of a coopting liberal bourgeois ideology: "el siglo del progreso no en vano se llama ilustrado y a esta ilustracion debio Quevedo el ser apreciado" But beyond these previously identified strata, the reader is led to the recognition of that absent history, the pre-capitalist age of literary production, when the names of authors, as Foucault observes, Pliny, Ptolemy, Anselm, Aquinas, held the power to confer "truth" upon texts: "not merely arguments based on authority; they marked a proven discourse" It is this timeless, universal status which, in rendering the author immortal, makes him at once invulnerable- -if in name only- -to the currents of the constantly shifting literary field.
The subtle, yet undeniable presence of this absent history can be seen particularly well in this passage from the article: D. Florentine Sanz, Hartzenbusch, Larra y otros muchos literates y poetas espanoles nos demostraron que Dn. Francisco Villegas y Quevedo no era el poeta cinico y prostituido a la lujuria, sino el poeta tierno y entusiasta en extreme, el filosofo profundo, el gran hombre, en fin, que tenia que hablar a sus 72 contemporaneos de la manera que estos hacian para que pudiesen comprenderle The evocation of Larra, such a key element of the textual operations in Juan Ruiz , functions here at a decidedly different level.
Rather, in this context, "Figaro" serves to confer validity on Alas ' s own argument. Thus, progressive Spain's original voice is transformed into the voice of " author- ity" as Juan Ruiz assumes the posture of the medieval scholastic text which would cite the consecrated Augustine to validate the pagan Aristotle. Of course, at the end of this chain of signifiers lies Quevedo. A "Poet," "philosopher," and "great man" misunderstood by his own age, Quevedo is portrayed as as a kind of Seneca, suffering at the hands of those whose folly blinds them to his genius.
Imitando a los grandes hombres no hay desdoro. Imitando a Horaero y Virgilio se hicieron inmortales muchos vates y si imitando a Quevedo sucedio lo mismo i,quien negara el merito de Quevedo? Pero, la que insistir en probar su merito?
Decir, Quevedo fue un gran poeta es lo mismo hoy que decir, todo triangulo tiene tres lados. The comparison with Homer and Virgil is only the most conspicuous component of the "buried" content in question. The idea of Quevedo as a "model" for other poets in search of "immortality" itself evokes a heroic and mythical age of authorship.
Moreover, the allusion to a geometric certaintly underscores Foucault ' s observation on the power of the author's name to mark "a proven discourse. Indeed, this sanctioning of a discursive hierarchy- -including the very distinction between degrees of legitimacy in writ ing- -completes the operation that Jameson 74 has termed the "ideology of form. Like an auto sacramental , the text raises up its saint- -the author, creator of sacred texts, of Truth itself - -and seats him anew upon the throne of authority, still bearing the martyr's wounds of past and present unbelievers.